5G is the next-generation of Mobile Network Technology (the fifth generation or 5G) has started hitting the market end of 2018 and will continue to expand worldwide.
Beyond speed improvement, the technology is expected to unleash a massive 5G IoT (Internet of Things) ecosystem where networks can serve communication needs for billions of connected devices, with the right trade-offs between speed, latency, and cost.
Previous Mobile Networks Generations
Since the last decades, several generations of mobile networks have emerged. and each generation has been known by a number X (XG).
- 1G, the first generation of mobile networks, lets us talk to each other and be mobile using the analog signals. the dimension of the cell is big (30km).
- 2G digital networks (GSM900-DCS1800-PCS1900) let us talk and send messages. we can travel without problem (roaming services)
- 2.5G and 2.75G brought some improvement to data services (GPRS and EDGE)
- 3G (UMTS) brought a better mobile internet experience (with limited performences)
- 3.5G brought a truly mobile internet experience, unleashing the mobile apps eco-system
- 4G networks brought all-IP services (Voice and Data), a fast broadband internet experience, with unified networks architectures and protocols
- 4G LTE ( Long Term Evolution) doubled data speeds
- 5G networks expand broadband wireless services beyond mobile internet to IoT and critical communications segments
5G technology is driven by some specifications requirements:
- 1-ms latency
- 99.99% availability
- 1000000 (device/km2) connection density
- 100x Network Energy Efficiency
- 10Mbit/s/m2 Area trafic capacity
- 20 Gbit/s Peak Data Rate
- 100 Mbit/s User Experienced Data Rate
- 3x (bit/Hz/station) Spectrum efficiency
- Up to 500 km/h Mobility
5G Bit Rate (the speed)
The bit rate for 5G technology predicts 10 gigabits per second (Gbps) (10 to x100 faster than what you can get with 4G). But it depends on the environment and the distance between the client and the base station that covers it.
5G technology offers an ultra-low latency rate. The time between sending and receiving information. From 200 milliseconds with 4G, it is reduced to 1 millisecond (1ms) with 5G .
The human average reaction time to a visual stimulus is 250 ms. With appropriate training, it is capped at about 190-200 ms.
For example, a car can react 250 times more quickly than you can. it can also respond to hundreds of incoming information and can also communicate its reactions to other vehicles and traffic signals, all in milliseconds.
At 100 km/h, the reaction distance is about 30 meters before you brake. With a reaction time of 1 ms, the car would have been driven just over an inch (less than 3 centimetres).
What frequency spectrum will 5G technology use ?
The frequency bands for 5G mobile networks are available in two bands. Frequency band 1 varies from 450 MHz to 6 GHz. Frequency band 2 varies from 24.25 GHz to 52.6 GHz.
To share the frequencies used by 4G and 5G networks, frequency and time division duplexing can be used.
The economic impact of 5G
By increasing the internet speed from 300 Mbits/second with 4G to 10Gbits/second with 5G, the latency time is reduced. It also preserves the autonomy of the devices because it uses less energy. Thus, a movie can be downloaded in less than five seconds. However, 5G does not only meet today's technological needs. Its development is essential for the launch of the connected objects of the future, which have long been fantasized about. The connected car, for example, is still not a reality today because the information transmission time, although a few seconds, is still too long. In a near future where many individuals will have a multitude of connected objects and where the use of augmented reality will be much more common, 5G is a necessity. Indeed, this type of network will promote Cloud Computing, i.e. the integration and interoperability of communicating objects in a home environment and a "smart city". From an economic point of view, the British firm IHS Markit predicts that the benefits will be $12.3 trillion and 22 million jobs will be created.
In terms of business intelligence, 5G is expected to increase the number of wireless services and applications, all of which are potential security vulnerabilities. Up to 10,000 devices per square kilometer will be able to connect and talk to each other. These dialogues represent sources of information that can be used by companies for business intelligence, for example. In addition, the speed of the devices will allow a relay from man to robot for information processing.
Nevertheless, this technological transformation requires a strengthening of protection systems. More particularly at the level of computers and robots. Indeed, as 5G networks are increasingly based on software, the risks associated with major security breaches, such as those resulting from poor software development processes within suppliers, are bound to increase. 5G will not overcome the security gap that exists in some devices and technologies. On the contrary, the additional speed and flexibility of the technology may well expose new attack paths or accelerate the speed at which they occur. The challenge for the firm is to succeed in developing a protection system that would allow it to keep its data.
In addition, the limits of economic intelligence and espionage are becoming
The information that is constantly collected by the devices will be personal data, yet will be studied by companies. Companies will continue to omit information about the use of customer content. Similarly, collusion between the public and private domains will only increase. The information collected by companies through their products cannot be hidden indefinitely from the state as is the case with Huawei's relationship with the Chinese government.
According to a study by US telecom operator Qualcomm, 5G will create 22 million jobs and produce $12.3 trillion in goods and services by 2035.